The Changing Face of Science: Part Two

In my last post, I wrote about how scientists are beginning to engage with the public, particularly via social media and blogs. Here, I will use my recent experiences at the AAAS conference to illustrate how social media are changing the business of science itself.

The AAAS conference was the first science meeting I’ve attended as an active tweeter. The experience opened my eyes. Throughout the event, scientists and science writers were tweeting interesting talks or points made in various sessions. Essentially, this gave me ears and eyes throughout the conference. For instance, during a slow moment in the session I was attending, I checked out the #AAAS hashtag on Twitter and saw several intriguing tweets from people in another session:

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These tweets drew my attention to a talk that I would otherwise have missed completely. I could then decide if I wanted to switch to the other session or learn more about the speaker and her work later on. Even if I did neither, I’d learned a few interesting facts with minimal effort.

Twitter can be a very useful tool for scientists. Aside from its usefulness at conferences, it’s a great way to learn about new and exciting papers in your field. Those who aren’t on Twitter might be surprised to hear that it can be a source for academic papers rather than celebrity gossip. Ultimately, the information you glean from Twitter depends entirely on the people you choose to follow. Scientists often follow other scientists in their own or related fields. Thus, they’re more likely to come upon a great review on oligodendrocytes than news on Justin Bieber’s latest antics. Scientists and science writers form their own interconnected Twitter networks through which they share the type of content that interests them.

Katie Mack, an astrophysicist at the University of Melbourne, has logged some 32,000 tweets as @AstroKatie and has about 7,300 followers on Twitter to date. She recently explained on the blog Real Scientists why she joined Twitter in the first place:

“Twitter started out as an almost purely professional thing for me — I used it to keep up with what other physicists and astronomers were talking about, what people were saying at conferences, that kind of thing. It’s great for networking as well, and just kind of seeing what everyone is up to, in your own field and in other areas of science. Eventually I realized it could also be a great tool for outreach and for sharing my love of science with the world.”

Social media and the Internet more broadly have also made new avenues of scientific research possible. They’ve spurred citizen science projects and collaborative online databases like the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. Yet social media and online content have also affected research on a smaller scale as individual scientists discover the science diamonds in the rough. For example, Amina Khan described in a recent Los Angeles Times article how a group of scientists mined online content to compare the strategies different animals use to swim. She writes:

“They culled 112 clips from sites like YouTube and Vimeo depicting 59 different species of flying and swimming animals in action, including moths, bats, birds and even humpback whales. They wanted to see where exactly the animals’ wings (or fins) bent most, and exactly how much they bent.”

Another wonderful example of the influence of YouTube on science came to my attention at the AAAS meeting when I attended a session on rhythmic entrainment in non-human animals. Rhythmic entrainment is the ability to match your movements to a regular beat, such as when you tap your foot to the rhythm of a song. Only five years ago it was widely believed that the ability to match a beat is unique to humans . . . that is, until Aniruddh Patel of Tufts University received an email from his friend.

As Dr. Patel described in the AAAS session, the friend wrote to share a link to a viral YouTube video of a cockatoo named Snowball getting down to the Backstreet Boys. What did Patel make of it? Although the bird certainly seemed to be keeping the beat, it was impossible to know what cues the animal was receiving off-screen. Instead of shrugging off the video or declaring it a fraud, Patel contacted the woman who posted it. She agreed to collaborate with Patel and let him test Snowball under carefully controlled conditions. Remarkably, Snowball was still able to dance to various beats. Patel and his colleagues published their results in 2009, upending the field of beat perception.

That finding sparked a string of new experiments with various species and an entertaining lineup of speakers and animal videos at the AAAS session. Among them, I had the pleasure of watching a sea lion nodding along to “Boogie Wonderland” and a bonobo pounding on a drum.

In essence, the Internet and social media are bringing new opportunities to the doorsteps of scientists. As Dr. Patel’s experience shows, it’s wise to open the door and invite them in. Like everything else in modern society, science does not lie beyond the reach of social media. And thank goodness for that.

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Patel, Aniruddh D., Iversen, John R., Bregman, Micah R., & Schulz, Irena (2009). Experimental Evidence for Synchronization to a Musical Beat in a Nonhuman Animal Current Biology, 19 (10), 827-830 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.03.038

Modernity, Madness, and the History of Neuroscience

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I recently read a wonderful piece in Aeon Magazine about how technology shapes psychotic delusions. As the author, Mike Jay, explains:

Persecutory delusions, for example, can be found throughout history and across cultures; but within this category a desert nomad is more likely to believe that he is being buried alive in sand by a djinn, and an urban American that he has been implanted with a microchip and is being monitored by the CIA.

While delusional people of the past may have fretted over spirits, witches, demons and ghouls, today they often worry about wireless signals controlling their minds or hidden cameras recording their lives for a reality TV show. Indeed, reality TV is ubiquitous in our culture and experiments in remote mind-control (albeit on a limited scale) have been popping up recently in the news. As psychiatrist Joel Gold of NYU and philosopher Ian Gold of McGill University wrote in 2012: “For an illness that is often characterized as a break with reality, psychosis keeps remarkably up to date.”

Whatever the time or the place, new technologies are pervasive and salient. They are on the tips of our tongues and, eventually, at the tips of our fingers. Psychotic or not, we are all captivated by technological advances. They provide us with new analogies and new ways of explaining the all-but-unexplainable. And where else do we attempt to explain the mysteries of the world, if not through science?

As I read Jay’s piece on psychosis, it struck me that science has historically had the same habit of co-opting modern technologies for explanatory purposes. In the case of neuroscience, scientists and physicians across cultures and ages have invoked the  innovations of their day to explain the mind’s mysteries. For instance, the science of antiquity was rooted in the physical properties of matter and the mechanical interactions between them. Around 7th century BC, empires began constructing great aqueducts to bring water to their growing cities. The great engineering challenge of the day was to control and guide the flow of water across great distances. It was in this scientific milieu that the ancient Greeks devised a model for the workings of the mind. They believed that a person’s thoughts, feelings, intellect and soul were physical stuff: specifically, an invisible, weightless fluid called psychic pneuma. Around 200 AD, a physician and scientist of the Roman Empire (known for its masterful aqueducts) would revise and clarify the theory. The physician, Galen, believed that pneuma fills the brain cavities called ventricles and circulates through white matter pathways in the brain and nerves in the body just as water flows through a tube. As psychic pneuma traveled throughout the body, it carried sensation and movement to the extremities. Although the idea may sound farfetched to us today, this model of the brain persisted for more than a millennium and influenced Renaissance thinkers including Descartes.

By the 18th century, however, the science world was a-buzz with two strange new forces: electricity and magnetism. At the same time, physicians and anatomists began to think of the brain itself as the stuff that gives rise to thought and feeling, rather than a maze of vats and tunnels that move fluid around. In the 179os, Luigi Galvani’s experiments zapping frog legs showed that nerves communicate with muscles using electricity. So in the 19th century, just as inventors were harnessing electricity to run motors and light up the darkness, scientists reconceived the brain as an organ of electricity. It was a wise innovation and one supported by experiments, but also driven by the technical advances of the day.

Science was revolutionized once again with the advent of modern computers in the 1940s and ‘50s. In the 1950s, the new technology sparked a surge of research and theories that used the computer as an analogy for the brain. Psychologists began to treat mental events like computer processes, which can be broken up and analyzed as a set of discrete steps. They equated brain areas to processors and neural activity in these areas to the computations carried out by computers. Just as computers rule our modern technological world, this way of thinking about the brain still profoundly influences how neuroscience and psychology research is carried out and interpreted. Today, some labs cut out the middleman (the brain) entirely. Results from computer models of the brain are regularly published in neuroscience journals, sometimes without any data from an actual physical brain.

I’m sure there are other examples from the history of neuroscience in general and certainly from the history of science as a whole. Please comment and share any other ways that technology has shaped the models, themes, and analogies of science!

Additional sources:

Crivellato E & Ribatti D (2007) Soul, mind, brain: Greek philosophy and the birth of neuroscience. Brain Research Bulletin 71:327-336.

Karenberg A (2009) Cerebral Localization in the Eighteenth Century – An Overview. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 18:248-253.

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Photo Credit: dominiqueb on Flickr, available through Creative Commons

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